Fifteen children who had hypertension and a defect in renal concentrating ability had courses sufficiently similar to suggest the existence of a clinical syndrome. The parents of most of the children noted that polydipsia and polyuria began at the age of 3 to 4 years. None had proved urinary tract infections. Cinecystographic studies were performed in 11 children and 10 showed evidence of ureteral reflux. Tissue for histologic examination from seven patients had morphologic alterations similar to those described as characteristic of chronic "active" pyelonephritis. This clinical syndrome cannot definitely be attributed to a single etiologic agent and, indeed, may have multiple causes.
Stickler GB, Kelalis PP, Burke EC, Segar WE. Primary Interstitial Nephritis With Reflux: A Cause of Hypertension. Am J Dis Child. 1971;122(2):144–148. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1971.02110020078010
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