Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was detected in 22 of 3,808 newborns using two survey methods. Of 1,963 urine specimens cultured for virus, 20 (1%) were positive. One child had moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss, one may have minimal brain damage, and a third has slow development following premature birth; 16 are asymptomatic. Cord blood from 1,845 infants was screened for IgM (>18 mg/100 ml) and then for CMV-IgM antibody. Three children had CMV-IgM antibody, and two were excreting CMV. Both are deaf, with severe developmental retardation. All 22 infected infants detected by both methods have had persistent viruria, although antibody levels declined in 16 and became undetectable in ten. Only one infant had symptoms suggestive of CMV infection in the newborn period.