Six patients with idiopathic hypopituitarism (IHP), one with Hand-Schüller-Christian (HSC) syndrome, and one with Prader-Willi (PW) syndrome were studied, with human growth hormone (hGH) alone (2 international units three times weekly), oxandrolone alone (0.25 mg/kg/day), and combined therapy. The IHP patients grew at a rate of 8.3, 7.1, and 9.5 cm/yr, and their bone ages advanced at 1.1 to 1.5 yr/yr but remained delayed. The HSC patient responded poorly to each. The PW patient did not respond to hGH therapy, but grew well with oxandrolone and combined therapy. However, her bone age advanced considerably at 2.2 yr/yr. We conclude that oxandrolone is an effective growth stimulus in IHP, and that by alternating therapy with hGH, considerable growth in stature can be expected.