Kawasaki disease or mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MLNS), first described by Kawasaki1-2 in 1974, is an acute febrile disease of unknown etiology. Until recently, more than 6,000 cases of this disease have been listed in the survey of a special study
group supported by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare. Although a number of cases have been accumulated even outside of Japan,3-6 it is much less common elsewhere.
The etiology of the disease is now under investigation including the isolation of a Rickettsia-like body.7 There is a possibility that an immunopathological mechanism similar to that of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and infantile polyarteritis nodosa is responsible, as evidenced by cardiac involvement, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive C-reactive protein and increased α2-globulin in serum.
Several immunopathological diseases are known to be associated with individual human lymphocytes antigen (HLA),8 but to date no investigation has been
MATSUDA I, HATTORI S, NAGATA N, et al. HLA Antigens in Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1977;131(12):1417–1418. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1977.02120250099033
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