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This is a collection of papers presented at the 144th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Feb 13, 1978, in Washington, DC. The state of the art as of that date was reviewed by the following speakers: Barton Childs on genetics and preventive medicine, and genetics and health education; Charles R. Scriver on genetic screening—the heterozygote experience; Robert Guthrie on screening of newborn infants; Richard C. Talamo on screening for α1-antitrypsin deficiency; Marie Louise E. Lubs on carrier detection in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and implications for genetic counseling in X-linked disease; Siegfried M. Pueschel on prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal disorders; Aubrey Milunsky (as summarized by Tamah L. Sadick) on prenatal detection of neural tube defects; Maurice J. Mahoney and John C. Hobbins on prenatal diagnosis by fetoscopy and fetal blood sampling; and David G. Nathan on prenatal diagnosis of the hemoglobinopathies. The phrase