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May 1981

Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae and Otitis Media

Am J Dis Child. 1981;135(5):403-405. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1981.02130290001001

Antibiotic resistance has been a problem of concern to physicians caring for children with otitis media during recent years. Ampicillin has been found to be well tolerated and generally effective for treatment of otitis due to both of the principal middle-ear pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. In the mid-1970s, however, strains of H influenzae that were resistant to ampicillin were detected. Subsequently, a marked increase in ampicillin resistance was found in some localities.1,2 Great differences in frequency of resistant otic or pharyngeal strains of H influenzae have been reported from different areas. In some communities, as many as 28% to 48% of the strains have been found to be ampicillin-resistant,2-4 while rates of 4% to 14% have been found elsewhere.1-5 At the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, we have found that only 8% of 79 middle-ear isolates of H influenzae were resistant to ampicillin during the period