• Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP), applied immediately after extubation, was prospectively evaluated in 18 neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome. Patients were randomly assigned to N-CPAP (group 1, N = 9) or a control group given oxygen by hood (group 2, N = 9). Groups were comparable in birth weight and duration of intubation. In the 24-hour period following extubation, group 1 showed a significantly lower mean respiratory rate (46 ± 2 vs 74 ± 4), alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (94 ± 9 vs 134 ± 12 mm Hg), Pco2 (45 ± 1 vs 50 ± 1 mm Hg), higher pH (7.33 ± 0.01 vs 7.30 ± 0.01), and less atelectasis by roentgenographic scores. This was associated with considerably better clinical courses in group 1 when compared with group 2, in which six patients required a late trial of N-CPAP because of respiratory deterioration and two patients needed reintubation. Postextubation N-CPAP has a striking beneficial effect on respiratory function and prevention of atelectasis.
(Am J Dis Child 1982;136:359-361)
Engelke SC, Roloff DW, Kuhns LR. Postextubation Nasal Continuous Positive Airway PressureA Prospective Controlled Study. Am J Dis Child. 1982;136(4):359–361. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1982.03970400077020
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