• During a one-year period, 315 of 5,397 children admitted to the general pediatric wards of a hospital had bacteremia. The commonest causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enteritidis, Hemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli. Most episodes of bacteremia were associated with gastroenteritis, pneumonia, or meningitis. Seventy-eight episodes occurred in children with severe proteinenergy malnutrition, and 46 episodes were hospital acquired. The overall case fatality rate was 23.2%, being highest in children with severe malnutrition and in those with other underlying conditions. The high proportion of bacteremias due to S pneumoniae and S enteritidis possibly reflects infections occurring in a lower socioeconomic group living in a temperate climate in crowded conditions. The most appropriate antimicrobial therapy for children who have suspected bacteremia in association with gastroenteritis or severe malnutrition is a combination of ampicillin sodium and gentamicin sulfate.
Berkowitz FE. Bacteremia in Hospitalized Black South African Children: A One-Year Study Emphasizing Nosocomial Bacteremia and Bacteremia in Severely Malnourished Children. Am J Dis Child. 1984;138(6):551–556. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1984.02140440035008
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