• Evaluation of 46 patients with the VATER association indicates that in addition to the major defects seen in this association, numerous other abnormalities occur at lesser frequency. Four of the defects that are not usually associated with the VATER association, namely, inguinal hernias, small intestinal malformations, choanal atresia, and cleft lip and/or palate, were seen at a relatively high frequency in this patient population. Two children possessed defects found in both the VATER and CHARGE associations. The spectrum of defects in the 46 patients in this study also is compared with that in 186 cases derived from the literature.
Weaver DD, Mapstone CL, Yu P. The VATER Association: Analysis of 46 Patients. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140(3):225–229. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1986.02140170051027
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