• General pediatricians provide comprehensive care for many children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To assess and improve our ambulatory training program, we first evaluated diabetes-specific care behaviors by residents in their continuity clinics and then introduced a structured visit encounter form. Based on established guidelines provided to the residents, a chart audit indicated appropriate measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin 40% of the time, cholesterol 90% of the time, urine protein 50% of the time, and thyroxine 66.7% of the time. Height was plotted 23% of the time, blood pressure was noted 66% of the time, and ophthalmologic referrals were documented 60% of the time. Requests for assistance from nonphysician members of a multidisciplinary diabetes team were minimal. After introduction of the structured visit encounter form, care behaviors did not improve. New training approaches to prepare general pediatric residents to provide excellent diabetes care are needed.