• In the autumn of 1988, pediatric residents were surveyed on attitudes toward work hours, moonlighting, and priorities in regulation of working conditions. Questionnaires for all 756 California residents in accredited pediatric programs were sent to chief residents. Of these, 676 questionnaires were distributed to residents and 319 (47%) were returned. Respondents indicated strong support for limits on house staff working hours, and most approved of the reduction regulations proposed in New York State. Most believed that individual departments, hospitals, or subspecialties should regulate hours. By a ratio of 4.3:1, however, respondents favored legislative intervention if such limits were not set by the profession. Moonlighting was generally considered to be an individual's choice and responsibility, but a majority were willing to restrict moonlighting if total house staff hours were also limited.