• Germ cell tumors may cause various aberrations in pubertal development. In prepubertal boys, these tumors may secrete human chorionic gonadotropin, resulting in precocious puberty. Human chorionic gonadotropin and α-fetoprotein are both useful as germ cell tumor markers in the diagnosis and detection of recurrence. Pregnancyspecific β1-glycoprotein, another oncoplacental antigen, has been used as a tumor marker for trophoblastic neoplasms, but not previously for human chorionic gonadotropin—producing tumors associated with precocious puberty. Patients with germ cell tumors may also have abnormal karyotypes. Herein, we describe six male pediatric patients with germ cell tumors and pubertal derangements seen during an 8-year period. We confirm the high incidence of associated sexual precocity, the usefulness of α-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and pregnancy-specific β1-glycoprotein as tumor markers in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients, and the occurrence of sex chromosomal abnormalities.
Englund AT, Geffner ME, Nagel RA, Lippe BM, Braunstein GD. Pediatric Germ Cell and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin—Producing Tumors: Clinical and Laboratory Features. Am J Dis Child. 1991;145(11):1294–1297. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160110086026
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