• Current trends in pediatric residency training have shown that a growing number of programs have been unable to fill their available positions through the National Resident Matching Program, Evanston, Ill. This has caused a competitive climate among programs to attract medical students as potential residents. The purpose of this study was to learn what factors are important to all students in determining the rank order of the residency training programs to which they have applied. Analysis of data obtained from 600 survey respondents (40%) showed that program curriculum was most important. Factors, such as night call and benefits, took on much less importance. Differences did exist between students who applied for pediatric vs other residencies. The balance between primary and tertiary care and a university setting are examples of variables that had a greater influence on aspiring pediatricians. This information has important implications for training program directors.