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July 1992

Prevention of Perinatal Transmission of the Hepatitis B Virus: Outcome of Infants in a Community Prevention Program

Author Affiliations

From the Hepatitis Branch, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Research and Reference in Viral Hepatitis, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control (Drs Niu and Margolis and Mr Targonski), and the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine (Drs Stoll and Albert), Atlanta Ga.

Am J Dis Child. 1992;146(7):793-796. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1992.02160190025012

• Objective.  —To assess the outcome of infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg)-positive mothers who received prenatal and infant care in a large, public health care system.

Design.  —Follow-up of a cohort of infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers.

Setting.  —Large, urban hospital providing prenatal care and obstetric services to county health departments.

Participants.  —Forty-two infants born to HBsAg-positive women.

Interventions.  —Prental testing of women and immunoprophylaxis of infants with hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and hepatitis B vaccine at birth and ages 1 and 6 months.

Results.  —All 42 infants received hepatitis B immune globulin and the first dose of vaccine. Of forty-one infants (98%) who received the second dose of vaccine, 37 received it by age 4 months. Thirty-two infants (76%) completed the three-dose vaccine series by age 12 months, and 34 infants (81%) completed the series by age 18 months. The rate of completion of the hepatitis B vaccine series was comparable to that of infants receiving the third dose of diphtheriapertussis-tetanus vaccine. Of 26 infants who completed the hepatitis B vaccine series and had follow-up serologic testing, 24 (92%) had adequate levels of antibody to HBsAg. Only one infant who did not complete the vaccine series had serologic evidence of hepatitis B virus infection. No infant was HBsAg-positive.

Conclusions.  —Public programs serving urban populations can effectively deliver hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis to infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers.(AJDC. 1992;146:793-796)

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