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July 1992

The Prophylactic Value of Clean Intermittent Catheterization and Anticholinergic Medication in Newborns and Infants With Myelodysplasia at Risk of Developing Urinary Tract Deterioration

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Urology, Children's Hospital (Drs Kasabian, Bauer, Colodny, Mandell, and Retik), and the Division of Neurology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (Dr Dyro), Boston, Mass. Dr Kasabian is now with Beth Israel Hospital, New York, NY.

Am J Dis Child. 1992;146(7):840-843. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1992.02160190072024

• Objective.  —To determine if prophylactic use of clean intermittent catheterization and oxybutynin chloride is effective in preventing urinary tract deterioration in myelodysplastic children with high bladder pressure and detrusorsphincter dyssynergia.

Design.  —Sequential, nonrandomized trial.

Setting.  —Referral-based urodynamics facility and myelodysplasia program at a major city pediatric hospital.

Participants.  —Twenty-six of 71 consecutive newborns with myelodysplasia who exhibited these urodynamic findings were treated prophylactically over 5 years, whereas 56 of 105 consecutive newborns with the same findings treated during the previous 7 years were treated expectantly.

Intervention.  —Clean intermittent catheterization and oxybutynin therapy were begun when these specific urodynamic findings were detected.

Measurements and Results.  —Follow-up urodynamic studies and roentgenographic assessment of the urinary tract were performed periodically over 5 years. Oxybutynin eliminated uninhibited contractions in two of 14 newborns and lowered peak contractile pressure in the remaining 12. Oxybutynin also lowered bladder-filling pressure at capacity in all 12 additional neonates with only hypertonicity. Twenty-four (92%) of 26 children had normal kidney function and drainage during the observation period, two (8%) developed hydroureteronephrosis, and one of these two had vesicoureteral reflux. In a prior study of children similarly at risk who were treated expectantly, the roentgenographic appearance of the upper urinary tract had changed in 48%. Minimal side effects were noted with oxybutynin, and no adverse effects of clean intermittent catheterization were detected.

Conclusions.  —Oxybutynin effectively reduces uninhibited contractions and lowers detrusor filling pressure, while clean intermittent catheterization allows bladder emptying at low pressures with no measurable side effects in these neonates. The overall effect maintains the integrity of the upper urinary tract in almost all myelodysplastic children at risk of urinary tract deterioration. Expectant therapy can no longer be advocated when these "at risk" children are identified because prophylactic treatment is so effective.(AJDC. 1992;146:840-843)

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