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January 1994

Diet Therapy for Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents: A Follow-up

Author Affiliations

From the Hospital del Niño Jesus, Madrid, Spain.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(1):28-32. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170010030006

Objective:  To determine the effectiveness and compliance of dietary restriction in a group of children and adolescents with hypercholesterolemia.

Research Design:  Prospective clinical trial.

Setting:  Pediatric hospital in Madrid, Spain.

Participants:  Four hundred fifty-one children and adolescents of both sexes aged 2 to 18 years diagnosed as having hypercholesterolemia and treated with dietary restriction (American Heart Association StepOne and Step-Two Diets). The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years and was performed by one pediatrician.

Results:  Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B-100 levels as well as the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased significantly (P<.01) from the first month of dietary restriction, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (P<.01). The apolipoprotein A-I level increased significantly (P<.01) only after 6 months of diet therapy. After 12 months of follow-up, 30.7% (58/189) of patients did not follow the diet strictly. In this group, significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B-100 were found.

Conclusions:  Diet therapy is effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents. Dietary restriction has a beneficial effect not only on total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels but also on apolipoprotein A-I and B-100 levels.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:28-32)

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