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September 1994

Stroke and Cerebral Infarcts in Children Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(9):965-970. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170090079015

Objective:  To study the causes of stroke and cerebral infarcts in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–type 1.

Design:  Case series.

Patients:  Four of 380 HIV-infected children followed up in a 10-year period in our department who had a stroke with evidence of cerebral infarcts on radiological imaging.

Results:  The four patients were severely immunodepressed, but their clinical status and outcome were different. Aneurysmal dilation of major cerebral arteries and thrombosis of these arteries or of small cortical vessels were discovered in two patients. Both patients had a history of frequent infections and had suffered repeated neurological events that resulted in severe clinical deterioration or death. An infectious causative agent was strongly suspected but was not detected. The other two patients had a more favorable outcome. An isolated cerebrovascular thrombosis was found in one patient, while in the other, HIV-1–related focal necrosis was suggested by the lack of permanent cerebrovascular abnormalities or thrombosis and by signs of necrosis in biopsy specimens of the brain.

Conclusion:  Stroke and cerebral infarcts in HIV-1 infected children have different causes and different prognoses.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:965-970)