Appetite and Growth: A Longitudinal Sibling Analysis | Child Development | JAMA Pediatrics | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 34.204.186.91. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Power  C, Lake  JK, Cole  TJ.  Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21(7):507-526.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Mehta  K, Phillips  C, Ward  P, Coveney  J, Handsley  E, Carter  P.  Marketing foods to children through product packaging: prolific, unhealthy and misleading.  Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(9):1763-1770.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Martin-Biggers  J, Yorkin  M, Aljallad  C,  et al.  What foods are US supermarkets promoting? a content analysis of supermarket sales circulars.  Appetite. 2013;62:160-165.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Finucane  MM, Stevens  GA, Cowan  MJ,  et al; Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Body Mass Index).  National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants.  Lancet. 2011;377(9765):557-567.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Carnell  S, Wardle  J.  Appetite and adiposity in children: evidence for a behavioral susceptibility theory of obesity.  Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(1):22-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
6.
Temple  JL, Legierski  CM, Giacomelli  AM, Salvy  SJ, Epstein  LH.  Overweight children find food more reinforcing and consume more energy than do nonoverweight children.  Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1121-1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
7.
Spence  JC, Carson  V, Casey  L, Boule  N.  Examining behavioural susceptibility to obesity among Canadian pre-school children: the role of eating behaviours.  Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(2-2):e501-e507. doi:10.3109/17477166.2010.512087.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
8.
Viana  V, Sinde  S, Saxton  JC.  Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: associations with BMI in Portuguese children.  Br J Nutr. 2008;100(2):445-450.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
9.
Webber  L, Hill  C, Saxton  J, Van Jaarsveld  CH, Wardle  J.  Eating behaviour and weight in children.  Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(1):21-28.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Hill  C, Llewellyn  CH, Saxton  J,  et al.  Adiposity and “eating in the absence of hunger” in children.  Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(10):1499-1505.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
11.
French  SA, Epstein  LH, Jeffery  RW, Blundell  JE, Wardle  J.  Eating behavior dimensions: associations with energy intake and body weight: a review.  Appetite. 2012;59(2):541-549.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
12.
Sleddens  EF, Kremers  SP, Thijs  C.  The Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with body mass index in Dutch children aged 6-7.  Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:49. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-49.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
13.
Castellanos  EH, Charboneau  E, Dietrich  MS,  et al.  Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function.  Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(9):1063-1073.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
14.
Cummings  DE, Overduin  J.  Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake.  J Clin Invest. 2007;117(1):13-23.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
15.
Llewellyn  CH, Trzaskowski  M, van Jaarsveld  CHM, Plomin  R, Wardle  J.  Satiety mechanisms in genetic risk of obesity [published online February 17, 2014.  JAMA Pediatr. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
16.
Agras  WS, Kraemer  HC, Berkowitz  RI, Korner  AF, Hammer  LD.  Does a vigorous feeding style influence early development of adiposity?  J Pediatr. 1987;110(5):799-804.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
17.
Agras  WS, Kraemer  HC, Berkowitz  RI, Hammer  LD.  Influence of early feeding style on adiposity at 6 years of age.  J Pediatr. 1990;116(5):805-809.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
18.
Wright  CM, Parkinson  KN, Drewett  RF.  How does maternal and child feeding behavior relate to weight gain and failure to thrive? data from a prospective birth cohort.  Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1262-1269.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
van Jaarsveld  CH, Llewellyn  CH, Johnson  L, Wardle  J.  Prospective associations between appetitive traits and weight gain in infancy.  Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(6):1562-1567.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
20.
Donovan  SJ, Susser  E.  Commentary: advent of sibling designs.  Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(2):345-349.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
21.
Obel  C, Olsen  J, Henriksen  TB,  et al.  Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for hyperkinetic disorder? findings from a sibling design.  Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(2):338-345.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
22.
van Jaarsveld  CH, Johnson  L, Llewellyn  C, Wardle  J.  Gemini: a UK twin birth cohort with a focus on early childhood weight trajectories, appetite and the family environment.  Twin Res Hum Genet. 2010;13(1):72-78.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
23.
Price  TS, Freeman  B, Craig  I, Petrill  SA, Ebersole  L, Plomin  R.  Infant zygosity can be assigned by parental report questionnaire data.  Twin Res. 2000;3(3):129-133.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
24.
van Jaarsveld  CH, Llewellyn  CH, Fildes  A, Fisher  A, Wardle  J.  Are my twins identical: parents may be misinformed by prenatal scan observations.  BJOG. 2012;119(5):517-518.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
25.
Llewellyn  CH, van Jaarsveld  CH, Johnson  L, Carnell  S, Wardle  J.  Development and factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in the Gemini birth cohort.  Appetite. 2011;57(2):388-396.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Freeman  JV, Cole  TJ, Chinn  S, Jones  PR, White  EM, Preece  MA.  Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990.  Arch Dis Child. 1995;73(1):17-24.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Cole TJ. Software for LMS Method: LMS Growth Program [computer program: MS Excel add-ins]. Version 2.64. London, England: Child Growth Foundation; August 21, 2008.
28.
Carnell  S, Wardle  J.  Measuring behavioural susceptibility to obesity: validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.  Appetite. 2007;48(1):104-113.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Original Investigation
April 2014

Appetite and Growth: A Longitudinal Sibling Analysis

Author Affiliations
  • 1Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, England
  • 2Division of Health and Social Care Research, King’s College London, London, England
JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(4):345-350. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4951
Abstract

Importance  Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding.

Objectives  To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs.

Exposures  Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD.

Main Outcomes and Measures  A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins.

Results  In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months.

Conclusions and Relevance  A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker for risk of weight gain in the current obesogenic environment and might be a potential target for preventive interventions.

×