Hunger in Midwestern Inner-city Young Children | Pediatrics | JAMA Pediatrics | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 18.206.187.91. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Wehler  CAScott  RIAnderson  JJSummer  LParker  L Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States, Executive Summary.  Washington, DC Food Research and Action Center1995;
2.
Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, Harvard University School of Public Health, Hunger in America: The Growing Epidemic.  Boston, Mass Wesleyan University Press1985;4
3.
Breglio  VJ Hunger in America: The Voter's Perspective.  Lantham, Md Research/Strategy/Management (RMS) Inc1992;
4.
Simeon  DTGrantham-McGregor  S Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49646- 653Google Scholar
5.
Politt  ELeibel  RLGreenfield  D Brief fasting, stress and cognition in children.  Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;341526- 1533Google Scholar
6.
Meyers  AFSampson  AEWeitzman  MRogers  BLKayne  H School breakfast program and school performance.  AJDC. 1989;1431234- 1239Google Scholar
7.
Benjamin  DR Laboratory tests and nutritional assessment.  Pediatr Clin North Am. 1989;36139- 161Google Scholar
8.
Karp  RJMartin  RSewell  TManni  JHeller  A Growth and academic achievement in inner-city kindergarten children.  Clin Pediatr. 1992;32336- 340Google ScholarCrossref
9.
Paine  PDorea  JCPasquali  JMonteior  AM Growth and cognition in Brazilian school children.  Int J Behav Dev. 1992;15160- 183Google Scholar
10.
Williams  PDWilliams  AR Mild malnutrition and child development in the Philippines.  West J Nurs Res. 1989;11310- 319Google ScholarCrossref
11.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System Annual Summary, 1995.  Atlanta, Ga Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1995;
12.
Clark  MRoyal  JSeeler  R Interaction of iron deficiency and lead and the hematologic findings in children with severe lead poisoning.  Pediatrics. 1988;81247- 254Google Scholar
13.
Yip  RDallman  PR Developmental changes in erythrocyte protoporphyrin.  J Pediatr. 1984;104710- 713Google ScholarCrossref
14.
Idjradinata  PPollitt  E Reversal of developmental delays in iron-deficient anaemic infants treated with iron.  Lancet. 1993;3411- 4Google ScholarCrossref
15.
Lozoff  BBrittenham  GMWolf  AW  et al.  Iron deficiency anemia and iron therapy effects on infant developmental test performance.  Pediatrics. 1987;79981- 995Google Scholar
16.
Pollitt  ELeibel  RLGreenfield  DB Iron deficiency and cognitive test performance in preschool children.  Nutr Behav. 1983;1137- 146Google Scholar
17.
Walter  TAndraca  IDChadud  PPerales  CG Iron deficiency anemia.  Pediatrics. 1989;847- 17Google Scholar
18.
Lozoff  BBrittenhaum  GM Behavioral aspects of iron deficiency.  Prog Hematol. 1985;1423- 53Google Scholar
19.
Dietz  WH Does hunger cause obesity?  Pediatrics. 1995;85766- 767Google Scholar
20.
Frongillo  EARauschenbach  BSOlson  CMKendall  AColmenares  AG Questionnaire-based measures are valid for identification of rural households with hunger and food insecurity.  J Nutr. 1997;127699- 705Google Scholar
21.
Lohman  TGedRoche  AFedMantorell  Red Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, Abridged Edition.  Champaign, Ill Human Kinetics Books1991;
22.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nutritional status of children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children: United States, 1988-1991.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995;4565- 69Google Scholar
23.
Dietz  WH Undernutrition of children in Massachusetts.  J Nutr. 1990;120948- 954Google Scholar
24.
Sawaya  ALDallal  GSolymos  G  et al.  Obesity and malnutrition in a shantytown population in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  Obes Res. 1995;3 ((suppl)) 107S- 115SGoogle Scholar
25.
Wiecha  JLCasey  VA High prevalence of overweight and short stature among Head Start children in Massachusetts.  Public Health Rep. 1994;109767- 773Google Scholar
26.
Karp  RJ From poverty to undernutrition. Karp  RJed. Malnourished Children in the United States Caught in the Cycle of Poverty New York, NY Springer Publishing Co Inc1993;31- 39Google Scholar
27.
Institute of Medicine, Homeless, Health and Human Needs.  Washington, DC Institute of Medicine1988;
28.
US Bureau of the Census, Income, Poverty, and Valuation of Noncash Benefits: 1994.  Current Population Reports Washington, DC US Government Printing Office1996;xviSeries P-60-189Google Scholar
29.
Dennison  BARockwell  HLBaker  SL Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity.  Pediatrics. 1997;9915- 22Google Scholar
30.
Oberg  CNBryant  NABach  ML America's Children: Triumph or Tragedy.  Washington, DC American Public Health Association1994;11
Nutrition
May 1998

Hunger in Midwestern Inner-city Young Children

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Pediatrics (Dr Cutts and Ms Geppert) and the Office of Clinical Epidemiology (Dr Pheley), Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minn.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152(5):489-493. doi:10.1001/archpedi.152.5.489
Abstract

Objective  To determine the characteristics of hunger in young children who attend ambulatory pediatric clinics in a midwestern city.

Design  Consecutive sample.

Setting  Ambulatory pediatric clinics of an inner-city teaching hospital.

Participants  English-speaking caregivers of 2578 children younger than 5 years.

Main Outcome Measure  Structured survey measures of hunger, family characteristics, assistance program use, child feeding practices, and anthropometrics.

Results  In this population, 171 (6.6%) were hungry, and 842 (32.7%) were at risk for hunger. Hunger status was associated with increased age (P<.001), decreased maternal education level (P=.013), maternal nonwhite race (P<.002), a history of homelessness (P<.001), and parental unemployment (P<.001). Hunger status was associated with use of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (P<.001) and food stamps (P<.001) but not with participation in The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Results of anthropometrics indicated that mean growth percentiles were no different between hunger categories.

Conclusions  Housing, dietary, and family characteristics are identifiable risk factors for early childhood hunger. Hunger cannot be identified, however, using anthropometrics. It is disconcerting that fewer hungry children and children at risk for hunger participate in WIC compared with other programs. These data suggest the potential for more aggressive identification and intervention at the primary care and social service levels to benefit hungry children.

×