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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics
February 2017

Highlights

JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(2):101. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3087

Research

Abram and coauthors study the outcomes of 1520 delinquent youths 12 years after detention. Non-Hispanic white males had nearly 3 times the odds of educational attainment vs African American and Hispanic males, and 2 to 5 times the odds of gainful activity vs African American and Hispanic males. African American males fared the worst, with lives characterized by incarceration, criminal activity, and few positive outcomes. Sampson’s Editorial describes the changes needed in the criminal justice system to break the stigma of a criminal record.

Editorial

There is increasing concern that shifts in state recreational marijuana laws may lead to increased use by adolescents. Cerdá and coauthors examine the effect of law changes in 2012 in Washington and Colorado using data from the Monitoring the Future study in 2010 to 2015. Among eighth and 10th graders in Washington, perceived harmfulness of marijuana decreased and use increased, while there were no changes in Colorado after the law changes. Accompanying Editorials discuss the potential effects of increased access to marijuana on youth and the difficulties of conducting rigorous policy evaluation.

Editorials 1 and 2

Continuing Medical Education

An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity has been reported, but the evidence is conflicting. Edmonson and Eickhoff use data from a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infection in children with vesicoureteral reflux. They found no evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with effect on weight gain or the prevalence of overweight or obesity. The Editorial by Scott and Mamtani discusses reasons why animal studies of antibiotic exposure may not apply to humans.

Editorial

Using data from 47 children’s hospitals, Cameron and coauthors identify high-priority general pediatric surgical procedures for which the greatest potential may exist for comparative effectiveness research and efforts to reduce practice variation. Procedures with the highest median cost and widest cost variation among hospitals were associated with neonatal conditions. The Editorial by Minneci and Deans discusses the next steps in reducing variation and improving pediatric surgical care.

Editorial

Abstract

Clinical Review & Education

In this report from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Bui and coauthors provide a comprehensive study on personal health care spending for US children. Child health care spending was $233.5 billion in 2013 and grew by 56% between 1996 and 2013, fueled by growth in ambulatory and inpatient spending and spending on well-newborns and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder care. The Editorial by Garfield discusses these findings and the possible changes in public financing for children’s health care.

Related Article and Editorial

Author Audio Interview

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