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Effect of Attendance on an Obesity Treatment Program
Family–based weight loss treatment is considered effective for childhood obesity and is provided to parents and children. In this study, 24-month outcomes were compared among groups with children and parents and groups with parents only. Parent–based treatment was as effective as the intervention with parents and children on child weight loss at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up as well as on parent weight loss, physical activity for parents and children, and energy intake levels. The accompanying Editorial discusses the clinical trial’s importance in larger public health efforts to curb obesity.
Continuing Medical Education
Antibody Responses and Age on Vaccine Responses
The optimal timing of infant immunization is key to maximizing protection and public health effects. This study combined data on 7600 infants from 17 countries in multiple randomized clinical trials to calculate the effects of maternal antibodies and the age infant received immunizations on vaccine response to the initial and booster vaccine doses. Maternal transplacental antibodies inhibited infant responses to the priming and booster vaccine doses. These data are critically important for planning immunization schedules and improving the cost-effectiveness of immunization programs.
Dog Exposure and Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood
Improved hygienic standards have reduced the microbial exposure during early childhood that leads to an increased risk of children developing immune-related diseases. This Swedish longitudinal cohort study linked data from birth date, drug, patient, and animal registries to assess the association of dog exposure and childhood type 1 diabetes. There was no association between early dog exposure and later type 1 diabetes regardless of the size of the dog, the number of dogs, or a parent’s history of type 1 diabetes. Exposing children to animals is unlikely to lower the risk of type 1 diabetes.
JAMA Pediatrics Patient Page
Outcomes of Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 39 million people worldwide and is a major contributor to health care spending for children and adolescents. This population–based study examined the outcomes of 7413 children treated with medication for ADHD. Children treated for ADHD had worse educational outcomes, lower academic achievement, higher unemployment rates after leaving school, and worse health outcomes with a higher risk of being hospitalized, especially for injuries. The effect of ADHD was worse among girls than boys. The study indicated that children with ADHD need more than medication to overcome the challenges associated with the disorder.
Clinical Review & Education
Long-Acting Reversible Contraception for Adolescents
Adolescents have higher rates of unintended pregnancies than any other age group. Contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices are long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) that are highly effective in preventing pregnancy. All pediatricians can counsel patients about LARCs before suggesting an oral contraceptive or another less effective contraceptive method. This article reviewed the different types of LARCs available, their basic mechanisms and adverse effects, and ways to bridge to LARCs with short-acting methods.
Highlights. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(7):611. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.3117
Artificial Intelligence Resource Center