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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics
April 2018

Highlights

JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(4):309. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.3339
Research

The rise in autism continues to perplex epidemiologists and leads us to pursue potential environmental exposures that might increase risk. Rosman and colleagues test the hypothesis that the depth of early prenatal ultrasonography may play a role. In a case-control study of 420 children, those with autism spectrum disorder were exposed to a greater mean depth of ultrasonographic penetration during the first and second trimesters compared with typically developing children and during the first trimester compared with developmentally delayed children. The Editorial by Webb and Mourad explores the association between diagnostic ultrasonography and autism spectrum disorder incidence and the potential for the role of ultrasonography as an environmental stressor.

Editorial

Neonatal abstinence syndrome is an increasing problem in the United States. Traditional treatment includes the slow weaning of methadone. However, MacMillan and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 studies comprising 549 patients and found that allowing mothers to room-in was associated with a reduction in the need for pharmacologic treatment and a shorter hospital stay when rooming-in was compared with standard neonatal intensive care unit admission for neonatal abstinence syndrome.

Hospital readmission for hyperbilirubinemia is a vexing problem. Some have argued that predischarge bilirubin and preemptive phototherapy may be an effective preventive effort. However, in a large cohort study of 25 895 newborns born at 35 or more weeks’ gestation from 2010 through 2014 with total serum bilirubin levels just below the threshold for phototherapy, Wickremasinghe and colleagues found that receipt of phototherapy during the birth hospitalization decreased readmission for phototherapy, but with numbers needed to treat ranging from 6 to 65. The Editorial by Taylor and Chang explores the slippery slope of phototherapy and evaluates longer hospitalizations vs readmissions.

Editorial

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