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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics
August 2018


JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(8):709. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.3363


Armstrong and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional study using data from 9472 adolescent and young adult respondents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 through 2016. They found that females were significantly less physically active than their male counterparts. Minority race/ethnicity and low income levels were associated with lower physical activity in most groups.

In a randomized double-blind clinical trial of 117 infants, Davis and colleagues compared the safety and efficacy of methadone vs morphine for treating infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome using a weight- and sign-based treatment protocol. Adjusting for study site and maternal opioid type, methadone was associated with a decreased mean number of days for length of stay of 14% (relative number of days, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00; P = .05) that corresponded with a difference of 2.9 days, a 14% reduction in the length of stay that was attributable to neonatal abstinence syndrome (relative number of days, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .01) that corresponded with a difference of 2.7 days, and a 16% reduction in the length of drug treatment (relative number of days, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97; P = .02) that corresponded with a difference of 2.3 days.

Continuing Medical Education

Ask and colleagues conducted a cohort study of more than 113 000 premature infants and siblings. Their findings indicated that a causal association existed between early preterm birth (< week 34) and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool and school-aged children.

Audio Summary

Bolk and colleagues conducted a national cohort study and found that more than one-third of children who were born extremely preterm (22-26 weeks) in the modern neonatal era had developmental coordination disorder at 6.5 years of uncorrected age, which was associated with considerable adaptive behavioral and perceptual problems and worse cognition. Their findings suggest that motor impairments are common at early school age in children who are born extremely preterm and are associated with several comorbidities, which is important for clinicians who are planning and implementing follow-up programs.