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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics
March 2019

Highlights

JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(3):207. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.3483
Research
Pharmacological Treatments for NAS

Disher and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to determine the optimum treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). They found that buprenorphine was associated with the shortest length of treatment without additional adverse events. Morphine was consistently among the least effective treatments.

Editorial

Screen Time and Performance on a Developmental Test

Madigan and colleagues conducted a cohort study of early childhood development in 2441 mothers and children. They found that higher levels of screen time in children aged 24 and 36 months were associated with poor performance on a screening measure assessing children’s achievement of development milestones at 36 and 60 months, respectively. The obverse association (ie, poor developmental performance to increased screen time) was not observed.

Constellations of Parental Risk and Anxiety and Depression

Lund and colleagues linked survey data and health registry data from 8773 children from 6696 2-parent families. They found that despite seemingly innocuous levels of some parental behaviors and characteristics, certain early risk constellations, such as low parental education, elevated drinking in both parents, and elevated mental health symptoms in fathers, were associated with significant increases in the risk of subsequent anxiety and/or depression among children compared with children from no-risk families.

Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence in Bronchiolitis

McDaniel and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis and found that the estimated prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in bronchiolitis was 3.1% using the individual study definitions of UTI. With the inclusion of a positive urinalysis result (pyuria or nitrites) as a diagnostic criterion, the UTI prevalence was 0.8%.

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