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In This Issue of JAMA Pediatrics
August 2019


JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(8):711. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.3513


Flaherman and colleagues conducted a randomized clinical trial of 164 exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant dyads of mothers who were not yet producing copious milk and infants who were 24 to 72 hours old with newborn weight loss at or more than the 75th percentile for age. They compared Early Limited Formula, a structured formula supplementation protocol (10 mL of formula fed after each breastfeeding until mothers produced copious milk), with control dyads, who continued exclusive breastfeeding and received a safety teaching intervention. Early Limited Formula was not associated with any improvement in breastfeeding duration.

Continuing Medical Education

Crump and colleagues conducted a national, population-based cohort study of 2 141 709 persons who were born as singleton live births in Sweden during 1973 to 1994. They found that gestational age at birth was inversely associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk in adulthood. At ages 30 to 43 years, adjusted hazard ratios for IHD that were associated with preterm (gestational age, <37 weeks) and early-term birth (37-38 weeks) were 1.53 (95% CI, 1.20-1.94) and 1.19 (1.01-1.40), respectively, compared with full-term birth (39-41 weeks). Preterm-born women had a lower IHD incidence than preterm-born men (15.16 vs 22.00 per 100 000 person-years) but had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (1.93; 95% CI, 1.28-2.90 vs 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84).


Eskenazi and colleagues conducted a cohort study of 397 US-born adolescents in California. They found that fear and worry about the personal consequences of current US immigration policies were associated with higher anxiety levels, sleep problems, and blood pressure changes. Reported anxiety significantly increased after the 2016 presidential election, particularly among young people in the most vulnerable families.