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To investigate clinical features and outcomes of children in Taiwan with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) vs those of children with influenza to differentiate the 2 diseases.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Patients 20 years or younger with clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory evidence of SARS from March to July 2003 vs children with virus culture–confirmed influenza in a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group.
Main Outcome Measures
Rates of symptoms, abnormal laboratory data, and outcomes of recovery, sequelae, or death.
The 15 SARS patients (9 girls and 6 boys) had a median age of 17 years (age range, 4-20 years). Nine patients (60%) were infected through household contact, 4 (27%) nosocomially, 1 (7%) through contact with a neighbor, and 1 (7%) after returning from Hong Kong. All 15 patients had fever, 3 (20%) had chills, and 11 (73%) had cough. Only 1 patient (7%) had sputum production; 1 (7%) had rhinorrhea. At presentation, 5 patients (33%) had leukopenia, 6 (40%) had lymphopenia, and 5 (33%) had monocytopenia. All children recovered without sequelae. Children with SARS had significantly lower incidences of rhinorrhea (odds ratio [OR], 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00-0.09), sputum production (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.63), and sore throat (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.85) than children with influenza. Both groups had similar incidences of leukopenia or lymphopenia, but SARS patients had a significantly higher incidence of monocytopenia (33% vs 0%, P = .04).
Childhood SARS is usually not fatal. The absence of rhinorrhea and presence of monocytopenia in SARS may distinguish it from influenza.
Chang L, Huang F, Wu Y, et al. Childhood Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Taiwan and How to Differentiate It From Childhood Influenza Infection. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(11):1037–1042. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.11.1037
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