The false suffocation alarm hypothesis was proposed by Klein1 in light of his and his colleagues' earlier finding
that D-lactate infusion was almost as effective as L-lactate in inducing panic
attacks.2 This hypothesis has now become
widely accepted, but in our view, it is fundamentally flawed.
Davies DR, Davies DD. D-Lactate and the False Suffocation Alarm. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(3):287. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.59.3.287