The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has led to an increasing recognition of the critical associations of sex (eg, immunity differences) and gender (eg, health care utilization differences) with disease outcomes and lack of data reported by sex. While this is commendable, the issues are not new. There is no better example than the global crisis of sex/gender differences in the co-occurrence (or multimorbidity) of the 3 major chronic diseases of our time (major depressive disorder [MDD], cardiovascular disease [CVD], and Alzheimer disease [AD]), interconnected disorders of the brain and heart, that are critical preexisting conditions into which the COVID-19 infectious crisis has interacted. Over a century, medical progress markedly extended longevity by approximately 30 years. However, this resulted in a high prevalence of these chronic diseases creating substantial adverse effects on health care and economic systems globally.
Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.
Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.
Err on the side of full disclosure.
If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.
Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.
Goldstein JM, Langer A, Lesser JA. Sex Differences in Disorders of the Brain and Heart—A Global Crisis of Multimorbidity and Novel Opportunity. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021;78(1):7–8. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1944
Coronavirus Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Create a personal account or sign in to: