Although schizophrenia was originally described as a neurodegenerative disorder (eg, dementia praecox), most modern theories consider it a neurodevelopmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental model implies that cognitive decline precedes psychosis, a pattern that is consistent with IQ deficits among those who later develop schizophrenia. However, evidence is beginning to mount that, in addition to premorbid deficits, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are associated with a gradual but relentless postonset cognitive decline that leads to dementia and premature mortality.
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Jonas K, Abi-Dargham A, Kotov R. Two Hypotheses on the High Incidence of Dementia in Psychotic Disorders. JAMA Psychiatry. Published online September 15, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.2584
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