We read with interest the article by Raine et al1 on prefrontal cortex volume in antisocial personality disorder (APD). These findings represent an important link between prefrontal cortex integrity and social behavior.2 However, their APD group was diagnostically not uniform and included subjects with different co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD). To control for this, they compared their APD-SUD subjects not only with healthy controls but also with patients suffering from various SUDs without APD. While they found significantly lower prefrontal gray matter volumes in the APD-SUD group than in the healthy and the SUD groups, the volumes in the latter 2 groups did not differ from one another.
Seifritz E, Dürsteler-MacFarland KM, Stohler R. Is Prefrontal Cortex Thinning Specific for Antisocial Personality Disorder?. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(4):402–403. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.4.402