Whereas the psychological construct and pathophysiological basis of craving for alcohol, a major risk for relapse in alcoholism, has been intensively evaluated in recent years, no measurable biological correlate exists.1 Neurobiological and psychological similarities between craving and appetite are well established since both are known to be influenced by the mesolimbic brain reward system and its endorphinergic inputs.2 Recently, leptin, the protein product of the obesity gene, was proposed to be a signal responsible for linking adipose stores with hypothalamic centers regulating energy homeostasis and body weight.3 In addition, leptin has been shown to alter the gene expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus, suggesting a role both in regulating the stress hormone axis and possibly in the endorphinergic modulation of the reward system.4 Leptin mutually interacts with other neuroendocrine systems involved in the regulation of appetite such as NPY (neuropeptide Y)3 or the newly discovered hypothalamic peptide CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript).5
Jahn H, Kellner M, Naber D, Wiedemann K, Kiefer F. Leptin as a Possible Modulator of Craving for Alcohol. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(5):509–510. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.5.509
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