It has been discussed whether symptoms persisting a long time after a head injury are always of organic origin. Differences in opinions are expressed in the literature, perhaps mainly because it is hard to find controls that are sufficiently comparable to the injured persons.
An attempt was made to throw light on this question by studying monozygotic twins with head injuries, using their co-twins as controls. This method meant that it was not possible to get a large series, but it also had a number of great advantages. In the first place, the noninjured controls were genetically identical with the injured twins and had also grown up in the same environment. Furthermore, because the twins grew up together and usually kept in close contact with each other after they grew up, the same persons, including the twins themselves, were able to give information about both subject and control.
DENCKER SJ. Closed Head Injury in Twins: Neurologic, Psychometric, and Psychiatric Follow-Up Study of Consecutive Cases, Using Co-Twins as Controls. AMA Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1960;2(5):569–575. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1960.03590110093012
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