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January 1961

Symptom Formation Associated with Aging: Dynamic Pattern

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4(1):22-29. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710070024004

Don't look back—something might be gaining on you.—Leroy "Satchel" Paige

In the past few decades, numerous studies have been made delineating the integrating and adaptive mechanisms of the human personality as the development of the organism from infancy to adulthood occurs. Concepts advanced by psychiatrists, psychologists, anthropologists, and others have provided a basic framework for understanding and organizing (in some coherent and rational manner) such observations. However, these concepts have not yet been generally or systematically applied to the personality changes that occur during the middle and later years of life. In particular, there has been available only very little information describing the patterns of development of psychiatric disorder manifested by noninstitutionalized older persons.

Especially the psychoanalysts, who have otherwise emphasized the importance of the development of personality patterns, have tended to pay little attention to changes in such patterns among older persons. Freud