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August 1961

The Eagle and the Ostrich

Author Affiliations

Faculty, New York Psychoanalytic Institute (on leave of absence). Clinical Professor of Psychiatry (Emeritus), Yale University School of Medicine. Director of Training, The Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital, Towson 4, Md. Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;5(2):109-119. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710140001001

It had been my original intention to try to describe to this audience something of what it had meant to me, not personally but scientifically, to turn away from the analysis of the neuroses, after doing this for most of my time (although not exclusively) for some 35 years, and to plunge back into the problems with which we are confronted in a psychiatric hospital. Actually it has been one of the moving and illuminating experiences of my life. It has led me to reexamine all traditional assumptions about psychiatric and psychoanalytic classification, dynamics, training, and research. For various reasons I abandoned this plan and have turned to a more general topic, hoping that this will be of interest to this audience. This deals with the relationship of psychiatry in general, and of psychoanalytic psychiatry in particular, to the future of our Western culture of freedom.

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