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September 1961


Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;5(3):319-320. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710150101016

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This is a practical discussion for the use of pediatricians, urologists, neurologists, and "psychopediatricians." It begins by quoting many definitions of the phenomenon to be studied and decides that they all have the following points in common: normal micturition, nocturnal, involuntary and unconscious, without lesion of the urinary apparatus, in a child over 3 years of age. The authors lean heavily on the statistics of Hallgren, concerning distribution in time, age, frequency, sex, race, social environment, and heredity. The only serious genetic study is that of Hallgren, who concludes that his data suggest that enuresis is determined, either by a major autosomic gene (its manifestations being modified by the action of the external environment or the polygenes) or it is determined solely by interaction between the polygenes and the external environment.

There is a brief discussion of acquisition of sphincter control in the infant. This education must

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