The division of opinion is most clear in child psychiatry where workers such as Bender5,6 and Pasamanick and Knobloch23 have offered evidence supporting the view that organismic factors make major contributions to the development of serious behavioral disturbance. Thus, Bender has stated that physiologic factors are primary in the production of childhood schizophrenia and that, although experiences after birth may be significant, the schizophrenic disorder is "determined before birth and activated by a physiological crisis such as birth".* Further, she has indicated that the psychological problems which have dominated the clinicians' thinking are "secondary" to a primary neurologic defect.5 Pasamanick and Knobloch have offered epidemiologic evidence for the view that reproductive insults of varying kinds are "potent precursors of neuropsychiatric disorder".† In contrast, representative of the interpersonal viewpoint are Kanner,15 Sullivan,28 Bateson, et al,1 and Boatman and Szurek
BELMONT I, BIRCH HG, KLEIN DF, POLLACK M. Perceptual Evidence of CNS Dysfunction in Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1964;10(4):395–408. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720220073012
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