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November 1964

Personality Traits in Cesarean—Normally Delivered Children

Author Affiliations

Chief, Section of Child Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Presbyterian-St. Lukes Hospital, Clinical Instructor in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois (Dr. Pieper); Assistant Director, Department of Research, Institute for Juvenile Research, Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois (Dr. Lessing), and Consultant, Institute for Juvenile Research, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of Illinois (Dr. Greenberg).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1964;11(5):466-471. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720290008002

Introduction  The phenomenon of birth has held man's interest from earliest times. Poets and philosophers, from the beginning of history, have mused about the arcane nature of the event. More recently, the birth experience has been considered from the perspective of psychoanalytic psychiatry. Rank8 has stressed the "trauma of birth" as the primal experience of anxiety. Greenacre2 has similarly theorized that the birth process provides the prototype of the individual's later experiences of anxiety by organizing diffuse, somatic, preanxiety reactions into a definite pattern. Since uterine separation occurs by definition in all births, its effects cannot be isolated for study. However, operational, testable hypotheses can be formulated regarding the different effects of various modes of bringing about the uterine separation. A comparison af vaginally and cesarean delivered individuals would seem to offer the opportunity to determine the postpartum consequences chiefly attributable to passage through

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