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July 1965

Anxiety and Arousal in Psychoneurotic Patients

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1965;13(1):19-23. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01730010021003

Introduction  ONE approach to the problem of neurosis is to regard it as a form of abnormal learned behavior. There are a number of theories which purport to explain why this learning process takes place. Common to many of these is the concept of anxiety whether it be expressed as a "wish conflict" or as a "drive state."Most of the controversies related to the learning of neurotic behavior center around the relationship between learning and anxiety and biological needs for food, warmth, and love. Spence and Taylor1 have suggested that all drives summate to increase and improve simple learning. However, much of their work is based on applications of their Manifest Anxiety Scale. This questionnaire deals with hypochondriacal and anxious complaints, and its general validity is open to question. Eysenck2 has advanced a theory of anxiety which borrows from both Pavlov3 and Hull.4 He has