TODAY, more and more ways of doing things are being automated. Whereas before, we called on our experience and skills, and made more or less intuitive judgments, we now do many things by machine. Human judgments have built the machine, and human judgment processes have been built into the machine, which keeps on repeating them endlessly. Doing things by machine has certain advantages. Barring mechanical failure, which can usually be detected and repaired, a machine can be counted on to do the same things over and over with a high degree of accuracy, and it can usually do them faster and more cheaply. Human beings get tired and forget. Our performance varies from day-to-day. Our judgments are influenced by mood swings and by irrelevant cues or prejudices. A machine can be set to do what the human operator does at his best, and the machine will keep
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