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April 1967

The Etiology of the Neuroses.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1967;16(4):515-516. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730220127019

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The era in psychiatry which has been referred to by some as "The Second Psychiatric Revolution" or alternatively, as "The Psychoanalytic Revolution" reached its height in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Although many of the neofreudians—Horney, Sullivan, Fromm, Fromm-Reichmann, etc—had already made their important contributions to psychiatric learning, the major emphasis in the psychiatric thought at the time was based overwhelmingly on Freudian theory and the importance of intrapsychic process.

In the ensuing years, as more and more evidence of the importance of interpersonal, familial, social, economic, learning, and communication factors in the determination of mental health and illness was uncovered, and neurophysiological, biochemical, and anatomical research progressed apace, a progressively greater need for integration and reconciliation of disparate and frequently apparently oppositional concepts and theories became clear.

Obviously, the symposium conducted by the Society of Medical Psychoanalysts in New York, March

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