PARADOXICAL effects coincident with drug administration have been observed clinically for some years. The advent of psychochemotherapeutic agents during the last decade or so has resulted in a noticeable increase in the incidence of these reactions. Although these reactions have by no means been confined to any generic class, the most marked paradoxical responses have been reported in relation to phenothiazine usage where, not infrequently, patients become markedly more agitated and anxious, rather than calmer and less anxious as would be expected from the pharmacological properties of phenothiazines. An early observer of these reactions, Sarwer-Foner,1-3 hypothesized that "the typical pharmacological effect (of the tranquilizing drug) chemically removes or interferes with activities used by the patient as major defenses against unconscious underlying conflicts." Stated more specifically, persons who characteristically are outgoing and physically interactive with their environment will respond with
McDonald RL. The Effects of Personality Type on Drug Response. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1967;17(6):680–686. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730300040007
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