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October 1968

Eyelid TremulousnessA Neurophysiological Index of Depression

Author Affiliations

St. Louis
From the Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine (Dr. Schwarz), and the Department of Psychology (Dr. Stern), Washington University, St. Louis.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1968;19(4):497-500. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1968.01740100113016

THAT the eye conveys useful information to the astute observer cannot be denied.Surprisingly few investigations concerned with behavior pathology have, however, looked at phenomena associated with the eyes apart from the current interest in rapid eye movement (REM),1 eye blink rate as related to anxiety,2 and pupillary responses. The latter appear to be influenced by the subject's emotions and attitudes,3 as well as by cognitive factors.4 Attempts at discriminating between psychiatric groups using pupil responsiveness to both meaningful material as well as light stimulation have been utilized. Hess et al discriminated between homosexual and heterosexual males utilizing the pupillary response to pictures of women.5 Hakerem et al made some discriminations between schizophrenic and normal patients utilizing this procedure.6

At a more observational level, ie, using one's eye as the discriminating tool rather than elaborate instrumentation, we observe

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