Herman Melville's classic tale, Bartleby The Scrivener, was published several years before the important psychiatric contribution by Karl Kahlbaum on catatonia. The excellent description of this condition in Melville's main character is noteworthy, and an attempt to fathom its origins is made through reference to biographical material on Melville which reveals his psychological problems.
Schneck JM. Karl Kahlbaum's Catatonia and Herman Melville's Bartleby The Scrivener. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1972;27(1):48–51. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1972.01750250040004