Tape-recorded psychoanalytic segments were scored for transference. Judges identified material as transference in proportion to its object-directed affective content, particularly when the affect was negative and ambivalently expressed and the object was the analyst.
There was little explicit reference to distortion in attitude or reflection of the past and no differentiation was made between transference and the working alliance.
Lower RB, Escoll PJ, Little RB, Ottenberg BP. An Experimental Examination of Transference. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973;29(6):738–741. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1973.04200060024003