• Fifty-two patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) diagnosed according to DSM-III criteria and/or their parents were interviewed regarding symptoms among family members. Occurrences of TS and multiple tics (MT) among first-degree relatives were distinguished to determine the familial patterns of the two diagnoses. Comparing these data with family data collected on a random national sample of patients with TS, we found no differences between the two samples. Each separately and both combined showed that (1) MT seems to be a mild form of TS; (2) both MT and TS are transmitted in the same families; (3) the sex difference is real and not an artifact of ascertainment; and (4) the sex difference is related to the transmitted susceptibility as a threshold effect. A specific genetic mechanism has not been identified.
Pauls DL, Cohen DJ, Heimbuch R, Detlor J, Kidd KK. Familial Pattern and Transmission of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Multiple Tics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981;38(10):1091–1093. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780350025002
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