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April 1982

Tardive Dyskinesia in Psychiatric OutpatientsA Study of Prevalence and Association With Demographic, Clinical, and Drug History Variables

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39(4):466-469. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1982.04290040064009

• We examined 153 psychiatric outpatients, on a maintenance regimen of neuroleptics, for tardive dyskinesia (TD) and parkinsonism. Demographic, clinical, and drug history data were collected to assess whether any of these factors were significantly associated with TD. After initial univariate screening, significant variables were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Tardive dyskinesia was significantly associated with the use of high-potency or high-dosage neuroleptics and depot fluphenazine, whereas low-potency neuroleptics were negatively correlated with moderate TD. Age, but not sex, correlated significantly with TD, as did histories of incoherence, grandiose delusions, and teeth or denture problems. Parkinsonism and TD were strongly associated. Although the prevalence of TD was quite high, there were no severe involvements of any of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale body areas.