• Eighty-two schizophrenic outpatients receiving maintenance antipsychotic medication were assessed for akathisia and tardive dyskinesia. Thirty-nine (48%) manifested patterns of nondyskinetic, restless movement characteristic of akathisia. On the basis of their clinical features, these patients were divided into three groups: "acute" akathisia (recent onset, related to an increase in antipsychotic drug dose); "pseudoakathisia" (motor signs but no subjective symptoms); and "chronic" akathisia (a mixed category including persistent acute akathisia and "tardive" akathisia with the pharmacologic characteristics of tardive dyskinesia). Coarse, jerky foot tremor was observed as an invariable accompaniment of acute akathisia. A significant association was found between choreoathetoid limb dyskinesias, orofacial dyskinesias, and the presence of chronic akathisia. Also, the findings suggested a possible relationship between pseudoakathisia, orofacial and limb dyskinesia, and the severity of negative schizophrenic symptoms.
Barnes TRE, Braude WM. Akathisia Variants and Tardive Dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(9):874–878. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790320042006
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