• Forty-nine, mostly outpatient (86%), nonbipolar adolescents, aged Tanner stage III to 18 years, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder and 40 adolescents without current presence or history of psychiatric disorder were studied polysomnographically for three consecutive nights. Sleep latency was significantly longer in the depressive groups. The nonendogenous depressive patients exhibited significantly more awake time and lower sleep efficiency during the sleep period. No significant group differences were found for first rapid eye movement (REM) period latency, REM density, or any other REM sleep measures. Age correlated significantly with REM latency and delta sleep time, especially among depressive patients. No significant correlations between sleep measures and severity of illness were found. It appears that the classic REM sleep findings associated with the adult depressive syndrome are not present among depressive adolescents, indicating a later ontogeny for these abnormalities.
Goetz RR, Puig-Antich J, Ryan N, Rabinovich H, Ambrosini PJ, Nelson B. Electroencephalographic Sleep of Adolescents With Major Depression and Normal Controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44(1):61–68. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130069009
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