To investigate the seasonal variation in levels of plasma L-tryptophan and competing amino acids (CAAs) in healthy humans in relation to climatic variables, total serum protein levels, and violent suicide occurrence.
Twenty-six healthy volunteers (13 men and 13 women; mean [±SD] age, 38.7±13.4 years) had monthly blood samplings for assays of L-tryptophan, valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine during 1 calendar year.
Significant annual rhythms were detected in L-tryptophan, the L-tryptophan/CAA ratio, phenylalanine, valine, and leucine, and semiannual rhythms in L-tryptophan values and in L-tryptophan/CAA ratios. Plasma L-tryptophan and the L-tryptophan/CAA ratio were significantly lower in the spring than in the other seasons. The peak-trough differences in the yearly variation expressed as a percentage of the mean were 17.1% and 16.1% for L-tryptophan values and L-tryptophan/CAA ratios, respectively. The amplitude of the yearly variation in all CAAs was low, ie, less than 7%. An important part of the variance in L-tryptophan availability (ie, 12% to 14%) could be explained by the composite effects of present and past climatic factors; higher ambient temperature and relative humidity in the face of lower air pressure are the most important predictors of low L-tryptophan availability. Important and positive time relationships were noted between total serum protein level and all amino acid concentrations, and a significant time relationship was also noted between the seasonal variation in L-tryptophan availability and the occurrence of violent suicide in Belgium.
Our results show a bimodal seasonal pattern in the availability of plasma L-tryptophan that matches seasonal patterns in the prevalence of violent suicide in the local population and depression in other studies.
Maes M, Scharpé S, Verkerk R, et al. Seasonal Variation in Plasma L-Tryptophan Availability in Healthy Volunteers: Relationships to Violent Suicide Occurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(11):937–946. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950230051008
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