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Original Article
September 1, 2008

Seasonal Variation in Human Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Vivian M. Rakoff PET Imaging Centre (Drs Praschak-Rieder, Willeit, Wilson, Houle, and Meyer) and Mood and Anxiety Disorders Division (Dr Meyer), Clarke Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto (Drs Praschak-Rieder, Willeit, Wilson, Houle, and Meyer), Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Department of Biological Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria (Drs Praschak-Rieder and Willeit).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(9):1072-1078. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.9.1072

Context  It is a common experience in temperate zones that individuals feel happier and more energetic on bright and sunny days and many experience a decline in mood and energy during the dark winter season. Brain serotonin is involved in the regulation of physiologic functions, such as mating, feeding, energy balance, and sleep. Although these behaviors and serotonin-related conditions show a clear seasonal pattern in humans, the molecular background of seasonal changes in serotonin function is entirely unknown. The serotonin transporter is a key element in regulating intensity and spread of the serotonin signal.

Objectives  To detect seasonal variations in serotonin transporter binding in the living human brain and to detect correlations between serotonin transporter binding and duration of daily sunshine.

Design  Regional serotonin transporter binding potential values, an index of serotonin transporter density, were assessed from December 1, 1999, to December 9, 2003, in a consecutive sample of healthy volunteers. Binding potential values were related to meteorologic data.

Setting  Tertiary care psychiatric hospital.

Participants  Volunteer sample of 88 drug-naïve healthy individuals.

Intervention  Carbon 11–labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile positron emission tomography.

Main Outcome Measure  Regional serotonin transporter binding potential values.

Results  Serotonin transporter binding potential values were significantly higher in all investigated brain regions in individuals investigated in the fall and winter compared with those investigated in the spring and summer (P = .01 to .001). Moreover, binding potential values showed negative correlations with average duration of daily sunshine in all brain regions (ρ = −0.21 to −0.39; P = .05 to <.001), such that higher values occurred at times of lesser light.

Conclusions  Serotonin transporter binding potential values vary throughout the year with the seasons. Since higher serotonin transporter density is associated with lower synaptic serotonin levels, regulation of serotonin transporter density by season is a previously undescribed physiologic mechanism that has the potential to explain seasonal changes in normal and pathologic behaviors.